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UEFI - Linux everywhere!

#linux #persistant #usb #portable #LIVEUSB #GPT #UEFI #secure_boot

Creating a persistent USB drive (for 64bit only - and secure boot enabled)

In some cases installation will hang on "fast boot" on some distros.Consider to change. DO NOT DISABLE SECURE BOOT you can read many about it, but this feature does not hint you from running linux! by
mokutil --sb-state

you can see if enabled.
There are rudiments to get secure boot and TPM work. MS has the power to sign. Ubuntu Kernel is ready to load while secure boot. But if you compile kernel eg. with nvidia-drivers on your own, you probably got limits.
If you are a more experienced user then you can use gentoo instead: LiveUSB GentooWiki <- there is a new livegui image present
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improved from : https://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/Archiv/Live-USB_-_persistente_Installation/
It is !mportant to use a desktop version NOT the live dvd for use on your USB: please read on to learn how to configure grub. kubuntu-22.10-desktop-amd64.iso
does not work with newer GPUs--> finished, ready to use disk image for minimum 4G flash drives only for 64bit systems (4.7G) > all you need to do is: writing image to flash and setup grub to boot from drive.
Follow these few steps strictly to create your own bootable usb kubuntu. Or write my image to your usb drive.
Burn iso, boot from it.
Using gparted (from Kubuntu Live DVD):
My choice was a sandisk cruzer extreme 32 gb usb 3.0 stick (read: up to 260 MB/s, write up to 120MB/s). Plug it in after session login from Live DVD, sometimes perhaps need to replug after partitioning.
It is normal that there is 1M free allocated space before the first partition after using gparted.
In my case it is /dev/sdh.
  • use ms-dos partition table
  • create an 4700 Mib fat32 Partition with boot flag, label LIVEUSB (in uppercase)
  • create an 10000 Mib ext2 Partition, label casper-rw
  • create an btrfs Partition with rest available space, label home-rw
  • optionally create swap
  • It is important to label the names as described: there will be integrated to your system automatically. gparted is able to format the partitions directly.
    There are USB devices where booting is a bit more complicated. In my cases, disabling USB Legacy and integrating the stick into UEFI boot manager in the BIOS helped.

    example mbr (fdisk -l)
    
     Device     Boot    Start      End  Sectors  Size Id Type
     /dev/sdh1  *      206848  8398847  8192000  3,9G  c W95 FAT32 (LBA)
     /dev/sdh2        8398848 39995391 31596544 15,1G 83 Linux
     /dev/sdh3       39995392 60475391 20480000  9,8G 83 Linux
     /dev/sdh4       60475392 62523391  2048000 1000M 82 Linux swap / Solaris

    If not, format your partitions like:
    mkfs.vfat -F 32 -n LIVEUSB /dev/sdh1 
     mkfs.ext2 -b 4096 -L casper-rw /dev/sdh2

    Copy the entire cd content including hidden dirs to the first partition (fat32) on your usb drive. Ignore symlinks error, it is not supported by fat32.
    Configure grub like this. Fine, if this is your output:
    
     grub-install --root-directory=/media/kubuntu/LIVEUSB --no-floppy /dev/sdh
     Installing for i386-pc platform.
     Installation finished. No error reported.

    if this fails you can try from your booted live dvd:
    
     sudo mount /dev/sdh1 /mnt/
     sudo mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
     sudo  grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/boot/ --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/mnt/boot/efi --no-floppy /dev/sdh
     Installing for x86_64-efi platform.
     Installation finished. No error reported.

    Last thing to do is edit your grub.cfg in /media/kubuntu/LIVEUSB/boot/grub/grub.cfg (my mountpoint) (on fat32 partition) with adding the following lines to make menu entry and boot up the drive:
    menuentry "Start Kubuntu pers 2 defaults" {
     	set gfxpayload=keep
     	linux	/casper/vmlinuz  file=/cdrom/preseed/kubuntu.seed quiet splash persistent fsck.mode=skip  rw  ---
     	ramdisk_size=1048576 cdrom-detect/try-usb=true keyb=de locale=de_DE
     	bootkbd=de console-setup/layoutcode=de  root=/dev/ram
     	#maybe-ubiquity=installer
     	initrd	/casper/initrd
     }

    hopefully you are now able to boot the media, notice the right boot order in your bios. Now You can setup the system to your wishes and everything is save. i prefer to make an image from the whole usb drive:
    dd if=/dev/sdh conv=sync,noerror bs=64K status=progress | gzip -c > /path/to/persistent_linux_usb.image.gz

    Sometimes Windows 10 updates can erase your stick, because windows does not like other os beside. With the image it is less work to do new.
    does not work with newer GPUs-->finished, ready to use disk image for minimum 4G flash drives (2.7G) only for 64bit systems
    write to disk like:
    gunzip -c persistent_linux_usb.image.gz | dd of=/dev/sdX

    (use isotousb,rufus or anything else for windows write to flash drive)
    expand casper-rw unmounted with: e2fsck /dev/sdX2 (X2=your device)
    give feedback!

    EFI

    In case of efi and grub version the partition table must be: GPT, which should be do first!
    in gparted go to: > Device > Create Partition Table > gpt
    otherwise do msdos (mbr)/ default. example gpt (using efi)
    Device        Start      End  Sectors  Size Type
     /dev/sdh1      2048  8390655  8388608    4G EFI System
     /dev/sdh2   8390656 33433599 25042944   12G Linux filesystem
     /dev/sdh3  33433600 60485631 27052032 12,9G Linux filesystem
     /dev/sdh4  60485632 62531583  2045952  999M Linux swap

    mkdir /mnt/boot/
     mount /dev/sdh1 /mnt/boot/

    You have
    apt install grub-efi

    this command should work, but there are many things can get wrong:
    grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/boot/ --no-floppy /dev/sdh

    chroot /mnt/boot

    fix grub in chroot when stuck. (consult google for workaround) Add this to your: /etc/grub.d/40_custom or grub.cfg (if mbr)
    menuentry "Persistent" {
     #set root=(hd0,msdos1)
     set gfxpayload=keep
     linux   /casper/vmlinuz  file=/cdrom/preseed/kubuntu.seed quiet splash persistent
      fsck.mode=skip ramdisk_size=1048576 cdrom-detect/try-usb=true keyb=de locale=de_DE bootkbd=de 
      console-setup/layoutcode=de
       root=/dev/ram rw ---
     initrd /casper/initrd.lz 
     }

    then run
    update-grub

    hopefully you are now able to boot the media, notice the right boot order in your bios. Now You can setup the system to your wishes that keep stay.

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